MERS Vaccines

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Last reviewed
November 5, 2021

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) Vaccines

The emergence of the betacoronavirus causing Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is zoonotic, and the source of the viral virus remains unknown, says the U.S. CDC.  A MERS-CoV respiratory infection can result in a high mortality rate, says the World Health Organization (WHO).

Human-to-human transmission is amplified among household contacts and in healthcare settings, stated the ECDC. And, scientific evidence suggests that people are infected through direct or indirect contact with infected dromedary camels.

MERS-CoV was first reported in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 2012. The outbreak of MERS-CoV in South Korea during 2015 involved 186 cases, including 38 fatalities. South Korea's MERS outbreak stemmed from a single Korean man who carried the coronavirus home after a trip to the Middle East.

Between September 2012 until July 2021, a total of 2,578 laboratory-confirmed cases of MERS-CoV and 888 associated deaths were reported globally to the WHO under the International Health Regulations (IHR 2005). The majority of these cases have occurred in the Arabian Peninsula.

In Europe, eight countries have reported confirmed cases, all with direct or indirect connections to the Middle East.

As of November 5, 2021, the U.S. FDA had not approved a MERS-CoV prevention vaccine. However, the FDA has Authorized MERS-related diagnostic tests.

MERS-COV Vaccine Candidates

BVRS-GamVac-Combi is conducting phase 1/2 clinical studies sponsored by the Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Health Ministry of the Russian Federation.

VTP-500 (ChAdOx1) MERS-CoV is a vaccine candidate from the University of Oxford that consists of the replication-deficient simian adenovirus vector ChAdOx1 MERS Spike protein antigen. The VTP-500 vaccine is administered as a single administration and with a homologous prime-booster.

INO-4700 MERS-CoV is a DNA plasmid vaccine that expresses the MERS CoV spike (S) glycoprotein. INOVIO's Phase 1 study of its MERS-CoV vaccine demonstrated it was well tolerated and induced high levels of antibody responses in roughly 95% of study participants. In addition, durable antibody and T cell immune responses to INO-4700 were also maintained through 60 weeks following dosing. The phase 2 study has dosed its initial participant.

MVA MERS (Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara) is a vaccine candidate that contains the full-length spike gene of MERS-CoV. Vaccination with MVA-MERS-S had a favorable safety profile without severe adverse events. Homologous prime-boost immunization induced humoral and cell-mediated responses against MERS-CoV. In addition, a dose-effect relationship was demonstrated for reactogenicity but not for vaccine-induced immune responses.

MERS-CoV Vaccine Research News

November 4, 2021 - Vaccitech plc announced the publication in The Lancet Microbe of the first Phase 1 clinical trial conducted in the Middle East evaluating the safety and tolerability of the ChAdOx1 MERS (Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome) vaccine candidate.

September 29, 2021 - The Saudi Arabian Ministry of Health announced its 13th MERS case in 2021. The new primary, active case is a 58-year-old male in Riyadh city, Riyadh. The ECDC reported this MERS patient died as of October 4, 2021.

August 26, 2021 - The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Ministry of Health announced a 69-year-old male in Riyadh who had contact with camels diagnosed with MERS-CoV.

August 17, 2021 - The WHO confirmed between 12 March and 31 July 2021, the National IHR Focal Point of Saudi Arabia reported four additional cases of MERS-CoV infection, including one associated death.

August 4, 2021 - INOVIO announced that the company had dosed the first subject in its Phase 2 trial is designed to evaluate INO-4700, its DNA vaccine candidate for the prevention of MERS.

July 30, 2021 - The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Ministry of Health reported a second MERS-CoV case from Riyadh during July 2021. Like the initial MERS case, the patient is age 65, was not a health worker, and isn't thought to have contracted the beta coronavirus from another sick person. This case marks Saudi Arabia's 11th MERS case of 2021.

July 21, 2021 - The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Ministry of Health announced a 67-year-old man from Riyadh, Riyadh, who had contact with camels, including drinking camel milk, was confirmed with MERS. The man's infection is listed as Active.

July 2, 2021 - The ECDC reported from January 2021 to 29 June 2021, 10 MERS-CoV cases have been reported in Saudi Arabia (9) and the United Arab Emirates (1), including five deaths. In Saudi Arabia, all were primary cases, of whom six reported contact with camels. These nine cases were reported in Riyadh (4), Makkah (3), and the Eastern Province (2).

June 8, 2021 - The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Ministry of Health (MOH) confirmed one new MERS-CoV case, a 63-year-old man in Taif who had contact with camels.

May 7, 2021 - The ECDC reported eight MERS-CoV cases had been reported in Saudi Arabia (7) and the United Arab Emirates (1), including four deaths. In Saudi Arabia, all were primary cases, of whom four reported contact with camels. These seven cases were reported in Riyadh (4), Makkah (2), and Eastern Province (1).

May 5, 2021 - The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's Ministry of Health reported a new MERS-CoV case, which involves a 36-year-old man who died from his infection. The man was from Hafr Al-Batin in the country's northeast. The case marks Saudi Arabia's eighth of 2021.

April 14, 2021 - A large team of researchers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia studied the antibody responses in 48 human MERS-CoV infection survivors who had variable disease severity in Saudi Arabia. MERS-CoV–specific neutralizing antibodies were detected for six years after postinfection. Choe et al. showed that patients with severe disease had robust MERS-CoV neutralizing antibody titers for one year. Patients who had mild disease had waning antibody responses over time (5). We assessed antibody responses in 48 MERS survivors with variable disease severity and duration <6 years postinfection.

April 9, 2021 - Since the previous ECDC update published on March 5, 2021, and as of April 6, 2021, three MERS-CoV cases, including one death, have been reported by Saudi Arabia (2) and the United Arab Emirates (1).

March 17, 2021 - The WHO announced the United Arab Emirates (UAE) reported a MERS-CoV infection in a 39-year-old man who owns a camel farm. The WHO stated: 'MERS-CoV has demonstrated limited ability to transmit between humans. So far, the observed non-sustained human-to-human transmission has occurred mainly in health care settings. And the WHO does not advise special screening at entry points concerning this event nor does it currently recommend applying any travel or trade restrictions.' The first MERS-CoV case in the UAE was reported in July 2013. Since then, 92 cases of MERS-CoV (including the current case) and 12 associated deaths have been reported in the UAE. 

March 13, 2021 - From March 14, 2020, to October 19, 2020, the Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease study reported a total of 67 SARS-CoV-2 ICU admitted patients who underwent simultaneous SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV testing. Of those patients, 8 (12%) tested positive for both SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV. This case series is an essential addition to the medical knowledge as it showed the interaction of the coinfection of SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV, said these researchers.

March 11, 2021 - The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's Ministry of Health reported two MERS-CoV cases involving people from Riyadh.

March 5, 2021 - The European CDC published the geographical distribution of confirmed MERS-CoV cases by country of infection and year.

February 16, 2021 - The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's Ministry of Health reported a new MERS-CoV case in the nation's capital city of Riyadh.

February 1, 2021 - The WHO reported between June through December 31, 2020, the National IHR Focal Point of Saudi Arabia reported four additional cases of MERS-CoV with one associated death. The cases were reported from Riyadh (two cases), Taif (one case), and Al-Ahsaa (one case) Regions.

January 21, 2021 - VBI expects to initiate the first Phase 1/2 clinical study of VBI-2902 in Canada in Q1 2021. VBI-2901 is a trivalent pan-coronavirus vaccine candidate expressing the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), SARS-CoV (SARS), and MERS-CoV (MERS) spike proteins. To support the Phase 1/2 studies, VBI was awarded up to CAD$56 million by the Strategic Innovation Fund of the Government of Canada, to be paid as retrospective reimbursement for eligible expenses.

January 11, 2021 - A non-peer-reviewed study, 'Immunogenicity and efficacy of the COVID-19 candidate vector vaccine MVA SARS 2 S in preclinical vaccination', used their earlier experience with the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; they engineered the MVA to express the full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike protein stably when serially amplified.

April 20, 2020 - Safety and immunogenicity of a candidate Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus viral-vectored vaccine: a dose-escalation, open-label, non-randomized, uncontrolled, phase 1 trial.

MERS 2020 News

Find additional MERS news and information on this page.

NOTE: This page's content is sourced from the CDC, WHO,, and the Precision Vax network of websites. This information was fact-checked by healthcare providers, such as Dr. Robert Carlson.