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Last reviewed
May 12, 2022

Coronavirus Overview For 2022

Human coronaviruses were cultured in the 1960s from nasal cavities of people with the common cold, reported a recent study. Coronaviruses are the 2nd leading cause of the common cold after rhinoviruses. According to the U.S. CDC, people commonly get infected with human coronaviruses 229E, NL63, OC43, and HKU1.

The International Committee for the Taxonomy of Viruses approved naming more than 40 coronaviruses. There are four main sub-groupings of coronaviruses known as alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. Betacoronaviruses are microscopic balls covered in spikes that encapsulate a central core of genetic material. The virus must infect cells to replicate and do this, and it must first attach to the cells.

SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus

The CDC reported that SARS-CoV-2 originated in 2019 but has now spread internationally, impacting most countries. On February 5, 2020, JAMA published a study from genetic sequencing data, showing this betacoronavirus shares 79.5% of the genetic sequence with SARS-CoV-1 and has 96.2% homology to a bat coronavirus. This finding indicates that SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 are not the same coronaviruses.

SARS-CoV-1 Coronavirus

SARS-CoV-1 was first reported in Asia in February 2003. By the time the outbreak was contained in July 2003, SARS had affected 8,098 people in 29 countries and resulted in 774 deaths, reported GAVI.

MERS-CoV Coronavirus

The emergence of the betacoronavirus Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) was first reported in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 2012. Humans are infected with MERS-CoV from direct or indirect contact with dromedaries. In addition, MERS-CoV has demonstrated the ability to transmit between humans.

SARS-CoV-2 Virus Immunity

There are various types of immunity from disease, such as vaccine-induced and post-infection, listed on this webpage.

SARS-CoV-2 Tests

There are various types of diagnostic tests, which are listed on this webpage.

Note: This content is sourced from the U.S. CDC, the WHO, and research studies and is reviewed by health professionals.