Globally, innovative platforms such as DNA, mRNA, virus-like particles, viral vector, recombinant protein, live attenuated virus, and inactivated virus approaches have developed COVID-19 vaccines.
Recently, GAVI reported about (112) COVID-19 vaccine candidates were undergoing clinical trials.
On August 23, 2021, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Authorized the Pfizer-BioNTech Comirnaty vaccine for use in the USA. Previously, the FDA issued Emergency Authorizations for the Massachusetts-based mRNA vaccine SpikeVax from Modern, Inc. on December 18, 2020, and the Johnson and Johnson COVID-19 Vaccine Janssen on February 27, 2021.
As of October 20, 2021, about 57.1% of the U.S. population has been fully vaccinated.
The European Medicines Agency has Authorized (4) COVID-19 vaccines. Furthermore, there are (5) vaccines in the EMA' rolling review' process. And as of October 15, 2021, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control reported twenty-nine countries had administered over 577 million COVID-19 vaccine doses.
Notes: COVID-19 vaccines effectively prevent severe disease and hospitalizations due to COVID-19, says the CDC. But it is still possible for a fully vaccinated person to become re-infected if exposed to the SARS-CoV-2 betacoronavirus.
COVID-19 Vaccine Leaders: Over 600 Million Doses Produced
The following COVID-19 vaccines have exceeded 500 million doses produced globally:
Comirnaty Vaccine (Pfizer - BioNTech)
COVID-19 Vaccines: Global Authorizations
COVID-19 Vaccine Moderna Intramuscular Injection - Japan's Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare granted special approval for a version of Moderna's COVID-19 vaccine.
Convidicea Vaccine - China-based CanSinoBIO's Convidicea vaccine is a genetically engineered vaccine candidate with the replication-defective adenovirus type 5 as the vector to express SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.
CoronaVac Vaccine - China's Sinovac Biotech's CoronaVac Vaccine is based on an inactivated pathogen. The neutralizing antibody seroconversion rate is above 90%, which indicates the vaccine can induce a positive immune response.
CoviVac Russia Vaccine - Russia's third registered vaccine is a whole-virion vaccine that uses viruses that have been inactivated, developed by the Chumakov Center.
Covaxin Vaccine - India-based Bharat Biotech's Covaxin is an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate. The coronavirus strain was isolated from an asymptomatic COVID-19 patient at NIV, Pune, India.
COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca - AstraZeneca and the Oxford University co-developed Vaxzevria COVID-19 Vaccine (AZD1222) is made from the ChAdOx1 virus, a weakened version of a common cold virus (adenovirus).
Covishield Vaccine - The Serum Institute of India produced a different version of the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine. The WHO granted Emergency Use Listing to the COVISHIELD' ChAdOx1-S [recombinant] vaccine.
EpiVacCorona Vaccine - Russia's Vektor State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology developed the EpiVacCorona vaccine that relies on chemically synthesized peptide antigens of SARS-CoV-2 proteins, conjugated to a carrier protein and adsorbed on an aluminum-containing adjuvant (aluminum hydroxide). EpiVacCorona-N Vaccine (AURORA-Covid-19) vaccine was developed by the Vector Center of Russian public health and Rospotrebnadzor. It is Russia's fifth registered COVID-19 vaccine.
COVID-19 Vaccine Janssen - Johnson and Johnson's Janssen Vaccines & Prevention B.V. investigational SARS-CoV-2 viral vector vaccine is an adenovirus serotype 26 (Ad26) vector-based vaccine.
MVC-COV1901 is a subunit vaccine comprised of recombinant SARS-CoV-2 S-2P antigen adjuvanted with CpG 1018® adjuvant produced by Medigen Vaccine Biologics Corporation, available in Taiwan.
Pfizer- BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine - The Pfizer- BioNTech (Comirnaty) COVID-19 Vaccine is an mRNA vaccine that encodes an optimized SARS-CoV-2 full-length spike glycoprotein in a 2-dose (0, 21d) regimen.
Sinopharm COVID-19 Vaccine - Created by Wuhan Institute of Biological Products, under the China National Pharmaceutical Group, Sinopharm and the Wuhan Institute of Virology launched the BBIBP-CorV vaccine candidate in 2020.
Shifa Pharmed Industrial Co - COVID-19 Inactivated Vaccine authorized in Iran.
Soberana 02 COVID-19 Vaccine - Cuba's vaccine Soberana 02 COVID-19 is a conjugate vaccine in which the virus antigen, the receptor-binding domain, is chemically bound to the tetanus toxoid.
SpikeVax COVID-19 Vaccine - Massachusettes-based Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine SpikeVax is an mRNA vaccine candidate against the SARS-CoV-2 betacoronavirus encoding for a prefusion stabilized form Spike protein.
Sputnik V Vaccine - The Sputnik V two-dose adenoviral-based vaccine deploys two different adenovirus vectors (rAd26 and rAd5) for the first and second vaccination, boosting its effect.
Sputnik Light Vaccine - The Sputnik Light vaccine is a single-dose adenoviral-based vaccine deploying adenovirus vectors rAd26,
ZF2001 COVID-19 Vaccine - China-based Anhui Zhifei Longcom Biopharmaceutical Co., Ltd. is a protein subunit vaccine using a dimeric form receptor-binding domain as the antigen, a harmless piece of the SARS-Cov-2 virus.
ZyCoV-D COVID-19 Vaccine - The Subject Expert Committee of the Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation in India recommended an emergency use authorization for Cadila Healthcare (Zydus Cadila) COVID-19 vaccine.
COVID-19 Vaccine Candidates in Clinical Trials
Vidprevtyn COVID-19 Adjuvanted Vaccine - Sanofi and GSK announced a global Phase 3 study launched on May 27, 2021. This study's positive results would lead to regulatory submissions in the second half of 2021.
Novavax COVID-19 Vaccine (NVX-CoV2373) is a prefusion protein subunit coronavirus vaccine candidate created using Novavax's recombinant nanoparticle technology to generate antigen derived from the coronavirus spike protein and contains Novavax' patented saponin-based Matrix-M™ adjuvant to enhance the immune response and stimulate high levels of neutralizing antibodies.
CVnCoV Vaccine - CureVac's CVnCoV is an mRNA vaccine candidate that utilizes nucleotides without chemical modifications in the mRNA.Instead, CureVac's proprietary technology principle is mRNA as a data carrier to instruct the human body to produce its own proteins capable of fighting a wide range of diseases.
VLA2001 Vaccine - Valneva SE's VLA2001 is the only inactivated whole virus vaccine candidate targeting particles of SARS-CoV-2 with high S-protein density, combined with two adjuvants alum and CpG 1018. The phase 3 Cov-Compare (VLA2001-301) study is a randomized, observer-blind, controlled, comparative immunogenicity trial in approximately 4,000 adults compared to Vaxzevria.AG0301 Vaccine - AnGes, Inc.'s AG0301 DNA vaccine candidate against COVID-19 is a plasmid DNA vaccine encoding the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein that opens the door to infection. It is expected to prevent COVID-19 or the condition of COVID-19 patients from deteriorating. In addition, since the vaccine is engineered to express only the spikes on the viral surface, producing antibodies, it is nonpathogenic and safe.
CoVLP Vaccine - The GSK and Medicago collaboration developed a COVID-19 candidate vaccine combining Medicago's recombinant Coronavirus Virus-Like Particles (CoVLP) with GSK's pandemic adjuvant system. CoVLPs mimic the virus's structure responsible for COVID-19 disease, allowing them to recognize the immune system.
INO-4800 Vaccine - Inovio's DNA medicines are composed of optimized DNA plasmids, small circles of double-stranded DNA synthesized or reorganized by a computer sequencing technology and designed to produce a specific immune response in the body.
CorbeVac Vaccine - Biological E. Limited is based on classical vaccine technology of a protein antigen, SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD, adsorbed to the adjuvant Alhydrogel (Alum), in combination with another approved adjuvant, CpG 1018.
UB-162 COVID-19 Vaccine - Dallas, TX-based COVAXX's UB-612 vaccine candidate, is specifically designed to allow for the inclusion and presentation of multiple epitopes to elicit both B-cell (antibody) and T-cell (cellular) responses without enhancing COVID-19 disease.
Brilife VSV Coronavirus Vaccine Candidate - The Israel Institute for Biological Research Indiana vesiculovirus COVID-19 vaccine candidate BriLife's phase 2 study will expand to 960 people, with various dose levels, beginning December 2020.
SCB-2019 COVID-19 Vaccine - The Clover Biopharmaceuticals S-Trimer (SCB-2019) recombinant subunit vaccine candidate has targeted the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19. The vaccine conducts a phase 1 clinical trial in Australia, testing different boosters provided by GSK and Dynavax. Clover's S-Trimer is a trimeric SARS-CoV-2 spike (S)-protein subunit vaccine candidate. A Phase 2/3 clinical trial has been registered but is not yet recruiting.
Vaxart COVID-19 Oral Vaccine - Vaxart's VXA-CoV2-1 vaccine candidate is based on an oral H1 flu tablet with positive clinical study results. Phase 1, an open-label, dose-ranging study, will be conducted in healthy adults ages 18 to 55. The study's primary objective is to examine the safety and reactogenicity of 2-doses of the vaccine.
Beijing BBIBP-CorV COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate - A randomized, double-blind, placebo parallel controlled phase I/II clinical trial evaluates the new inactivated coronavirus vaccine (2019-CoV) (Vero cells) in healthy people aged three years and older.
EXG-5003 Vaccine - Elixirgen Therapeutics's EXG-5003 is a temperature-sensitive self-replicating RNA vaccine expressing the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. EXG-5003 was optimized for intradermal injection with potential dose-sparing and safety benefits. Human clinical trials are expected to begin at Fujita Health University Hospital in Aichi, Japan, in Q1 2021.
hAd5-COVID-19 Vaccine - ImmunityBio hAd5 COVID-19 vaccine candidate targets the inner nucleocapsid and the outer spike protein, engineered to activate both T cells and antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. Phase 1 study launched in California during October 2020.
Coronavirus Virus-Like Particle Vaccine - The Phase 1 trial of bacTRL-Spike™ Vaccine for Prevention of COVID-19 is being conducted in partnership with Nucleus Network in Brisbane, Australia. Preliminary data are anticipated in early 2021.
CoVepiT COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate - OSE Immunotherapeutics CoVepiT is a prophylactic vaccine based on optimized epitopes selected to induce a lasting sentinel T lymphocyte immune response against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.
Vaccination decisions during the COVID-19 pandemic should be discussed between patients and their healthcare providers, says the U.S. CDC. Furthermore, the updated CDC Frequently Asked Questions about COVID-19 Vaccination are found at this link.
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The content was Fact-Checked by Dr. Robert Carlson and other healthcare professionals.