COVID-19 Treatments

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Last reviewed
October 5, 2021

COVID-19 Treatments

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted emergency use authorizations (EUA) for specific treatments for patients infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus and for people hospitalized with COVID-19.

Molnupiravir (MK-4482/EIDD-2801) is an oral antiviral medication initially developed to treat influenza. MK-4482/EIDD-2801 consists of the nucleoside analog N4-hydroxycytidine. Molnupiravir has been evaluated against coronaviruses, suppressing virus transmission within 24-hours.

CytoDyn's Leronlimab is intended to serve as a therapy for patients who experience respiratory illness due to COVID-19.

The COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines Panel published updated Recommendations for Actemra (Tocilizumab) on March 5, 2021, an anti-inflammatory drug used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, has been reported to improve severely ill COVID-19 patients' outcomes.

AstraZeneca's AZD7442 long-acting antibody combination (LAAB) is launching late-stage clinical studies in various countries. Combining two LAABs is also designed to reduce the risk of resistance developed by the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

On December 23, 2020, Merck announced it has entered into an agreement with the U.S. Government to support the development, manufacture, and initial distribution of an investigational biological therapeutic (CD24Fc, to be named MK-7110) upon approval or Emergency Use Authorization from the U.S. FDA. Merck acquired MK-7110 through the acquisition of New Jersey-based OncoImmune.

Olumiant (baricitinib), an oral JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor, is evaluated in a phase 3 study in hospitalized adults with COVID-19.

Aviptadil (RLF-100) is a formulation of synthetic human Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide, which targets the VPAC1 receptor of the ATII cell and protects that cell against all manner of injuries, including smoke inhalation, exposure to stomach acid, and exposure to infectious agents. The U.S. FDA granted Expanded Access Protocol to RLF-100 (Aviptadil) for Respiratory Failure in COVID-19.

Tradipitant may accelerate clinical improvement in hospitalized COVID-19 pneumonia patients reported in a phase 3 study. Tradipitant is an experimental drug that is a neurokinin one antagonist. It works by blocking substance P, a small signaling molecule.

NRx Pharmaceuticals announced on June 1, 2021; it had applied with U.S. FDA requesting a EUA for ZYESAMI™ (Aviptadil-acetate) to treat Critically Ill COVID-19 patients suffering from respiratory failure.

Roche and Atea's AT-527 has demonstrated clinical safety/tolerability and potent antiviral efficacy in patients with HCV infection, as well as a favorable human pharmacokinetic profile, with potent in vitro activity against human coronaviruses.

Pfizer Inc. is evaluating an investigational, novel oral antiviral clinical candidate PF-07321332, a SARS-CoV2-3CL protease inhibitor that has demonstrated potent in vitro antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2, as well as activity against other coronaviruses, suggesting potential for use in the treatment of COVID-19 as well as potential use to address future coronavirus threats.

Note: This content was last reviewed by health care professionals, such as Dr. Robert Carlson.